Our Environment consist of non living elements such as air, water, soil and energy; as well as living elements like plants, animals and humans which maintains a delicate balance to form our ecosystems. If one or more of these elements are damage, disrupted or contaminated the balance whole ecosystem is disturbed bringing chaos and death. Unfortunately due to human activities like burning fossil fuels, destruction of forests, releasing harmful chemical in the atmosphere our environment is constantly being polluted making out planet earth inhabitable which is a threat to human survival.
Air is being polluted by exhausts form motor vehicles and industries which contains CO2, CO, SO2, NO2 and other harmful chemical gases. These gases are trapping the heat of the sun rising the temperature of earth which is melting down polar ice caps. As a result sea level is rising and soon coastal areas of many countries and some island nations will completely go under water killing a lot of people and displacing many more. Due to this Global Warming the intensity and frequency of natural disasters are increasing, that is the storms are getting stronger and they are occurring more often. Besides that, polluted air causes diseases such as lungs cancer, bronchitis, asthma and other respiratory problems. Diseases such as Tuberculosis, Pneumonia are also caused by contaminated air.
Water is being polluted by dumping waste materials of mills and factories containing harmful chemicals. Household and sewerage waste also contaminate water. Overused chemical fertilizers and pesticides get washed away by rain water ending up in water sources which make water poisonous. Arsenics pollution also makes water of wells and tube wells poisonous. Polluted water contains deadly chemicals which can cause cancer, liver and kidney failure, skin problems and various other diseases. Water contaminated with bacteria, virus and other germs causes waterborne diseases such as diarrhea, cholera, jaundice etc. Pollution’s such as polythene and plastics clogs the flow of water; or gets deposited at the bottom of rivers decreasing their death causing floods during heavy rainfall. Pollution is also decreasing fish and aquatic animals by destroying habitats and disrupting food chains.
Soil is being polluted by polythene and plastics which do not decompose through natural processes. Polythene, plastics and overused chemicals remains intact in soil for hundreds of years reducing soil fertility. Fertile lands are turning into deserts due to soil pollution.
Deforestation has the most negative powerful impact on the environment. As human population increases, the demand for natural resources such land, wood also increases. To sustain the rising population humans are destroying forests for agriculture, farming, construction of roads and building. In this process the natural habitats of animals and plants are being destroyed, the food chains are disrupted and one by one endangered animals and plants are going extinct.
Since humans are the most intelligent species on earth it is our responsibility to take care of our planet. If this process of extinction continues then soon it will be our turn to go extinct. To decrease the rate of pollution we have to follow the 3 (R) s: Reduce, Reuse and Recycle.
Let us reduce the use of fossil fuels and non renewable sources of energy such as oil, coal and gas; by using solar energy, wind energy, hydro-electric power, geothermal energy, bio-fuel and other renewable sources of energy. We should also reduce the wastage of energy by turning the electrical switches and stoves off after use. We should walk or ride bicycle instead of using motor vehicles like cars or motor cycles; or at least use public transports which produce less CO2 per person. Paper is produced from trees, so we should also reduce the use of paper for study, office work or research and instead we should use digital mediums.
Let us reuse products such as plastic bags, electronic products, clothes, containers and other goods by repairing them or finding alternate uses for them. It is also a good practice to buy recondition product which are in good condition which would save money as well as reduce production of electronic waste. We should not throw away clothes in garbage just because they went out of fashion. We can donate our old things to homeless shelters and other charity organization instead of throwing them with trash.
Let us recycle plastic and metal products to produce new products so that they do not end up in water or soil. We can also produce organic natural compost fertilizers by recycling household waste and fallen leaves. We can also recycle cow dung and garbage to produce bio-gas which is an eco-friendly source of energy.
Last but not the least, we have to stop deforestation. Instead of clear cutting of trees which destroys forest; we should use strip cutting method which allows forests to recover the loss of trees naturally. We have to plant trees as much as possible and take care of them. If we need to cut trees then, we should at least plant 2 trees when each tree is cut down.
More research should be done to invent Eco-friendly technologies. We need to make solar and wind energy cheaper and available to all. The mass media should make people aware about the harmful effects of Environment pollution, Global Warming and Climate change. We have to unite the people, governments, NGOs and mass media to fight against the threats to human existence.
We hope that with the combined effort of the people, government, NGOs and mass media we will be able to check global warming and leave a better pollution free earth for the generations to come.